First Birthday Shindig in Normandy

Saturday, 15 July 1944, marked the first anniversary of the 371st Fighter Group’s 15 July 1943 activation at Richmond Army Air Base, Virginia. In the period immediately preceding this birthday anniversary, Frisky was quite active, flying numerous missions from dawn to dusk out of A-6 airfield near Ste Mère Eglise.

As the 15th started, the group was in action again. Twenty-six dive-bombing P-47’s, covered by another 13 P-47’s as escorts, a total of 39 Thunderbolts, took off at 0926, in a show led by Major Goolsbee of the 406th Fighter Squadron. This was also the 404th Fighter Squadron’s 100th combat mission of the war.

Due to the overcast weather, 8/10 stratus from 1,500 to 4,000 feet which forced the show to fly in at low altitude, Frisky was unable to find the primary target, didn’t have the gas to reach the secondary target, but improvised successfully and hit an alternate target at 1017. In at low altitude and into a lot of light flak which damaged two Jugs, they managed to hit a marshaling yard at Dreux on the river and cut the rails in several places and damaged 25 box cars and an engine. Fifty 500-lb bombs rained down on the target – two did not release due to stiffness in the manual bomb release mechanism during the dive. Frisky then made it through the weather back to A-6 by 1100 hours.

One reason why Hitler's armies were not fed or supplied with ammunition. (The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.)

One reason why Hitler’s armies were not fed or supplied with ammunition. (The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.)

A release from further operations for the day came through in the morning. And so Frisky made plans for a celebration of the day, taking advantage of what local resources were available.

Behind the group’s chateau headquarters, the enlisted troops gathered in a green field to participate in sport contests. There were baseball games, relay races, and a tug of war, among the events.

Race at Frisky's First Birthday Party in Normandy.  (The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.)

Race at Frisky’s First Birthday Party in Normandy. (The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.)

At the far end of the field, the cooks in the group were busy preparing huge sections of beef “slowly barbecuing over deep pit fires.”

BBQ, Advanced Landing Ground style - not strictly according to Emily Post, but practicable.  (The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.)

BBQ, Advanced Landing Ground style – not strictly according to Emily Post, but practicable. (The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.)

Special Service provided some entertainment, including a reported first-rate show by comedian Eddie Hill.

Eddie Hill's troupe and the 371st Fighter Group's own, the Jive Bombers, entertained on Frisky's first anniversary.  (The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.) anniversary

Eddie Hill’s troupe and the 371st Fighter Group’s own, the “Jive Bombers,” entertained on Frisky’s first anniversary. (The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.)

Even Normandy gave something to the party, with Calvados (an apple brandy specialty of the region) and apple cider to accompany the delicious BBQ.

CPL Andrew Jost, New Milford, CT - an enlisted member the 371st FG, has a hard time concentrating on his mess kit full of American barbecue.  Mademoiselle Charmagne cheerfully  listens as Cpl Jost tries a snow job, with a French accent, yet.  (The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.)

CPL Andrew Jost, New Milford, CT – an enlisted member the 371st FG, has a hard time concentrating on his mess kit full of American barbecue. Mademoiselle Charmagne cheerfully
listens as Cpl Jost tries a snow job, with a French accent, yet. (The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.)

There were also some news correspondents and newsreel men on hand to watch the festivities. The festivities continued until nearly midnight.

It was at this party that Frisky’s Commander, Col. Bingham T. Kleine, announced that Frisky had become a father. That is by way of an “adoption” if you will, of a young French farmgirl named Yvette Hamel. Yvette had been grievously wounded by German artillery while milking cows at the family farm near La Haye du Puits. An Army medic administered life-saving first aid, and an Army field hospital near Ste Mère Eglise had saved her life and stabilized her condition, but then the hospital had to move on. Col Kleine agreed to take over care of Yvette to help her in the early stages of recovery – he realized there really wasn’t anywhere else she could go to get the medical care she desperately needed.

Young Yvette Hamel receives a show of friendly Frisky visitors in her convalescence tent during her stay with the 371st Fighter group in the summer of 1944.  Courtesy "Sunward I've Climbed," by Annie Laurie Morgan)

Young Yvette Hamel receives a show of friendly Frisky visitors in her convalescence tent during her stay with the 371st Fighter group in the summer of 1944. Courtesy “Sunward I’ve Climbed,” by Annie Laurie Morgan)

Col Kleine asked the members of the group to donate money to be used to help Yvette’s recuperation. The 405th Fighter Squadron history records this response: “As a result of his plea, the squadron raised more than $1000.00 (over 50% of the group total) as a gift for the girl.” Yvette was in good hands with the 371st Fighter Group, and would spend several months with the group before she went to Paris for rehabilitation. For more on Yvette’s story, see “The French Farm Girl of the Flying Field,” on the 142nd Fighter Wing website at:

http://www.142fw.ang.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123361404

Frisky’s respite was brief – by the afternoon on 16 July, the shows were launched again, and totaled six missions for that day. But at least the members of the group could feel that they suitably celebrated the 371st Fighter group’s first birthday.

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Improving Frisky’s Chow Situation

With all the group’s personnel together once again at Ste Mère Eglise, the unit regained an ability to better feed its members. As the 405th Fighter Squadron History for July, 1944, noted, “We “had joy” with the beginning of Class B rations on the 9th of the month as we put away K and 10-in-1’s.”

To be included in a unit history, a fact such as this must have been deemed significant. As an air force flies on its stomach, to paraphrase Napoleon (or was it Frederick the Great), improvements in chow could probably be correlated to improved morale and sustained levels of performance.

With regard to what Frisky had been eating since arriving at A-6 Advanced Landing Ground, let us briefly examine K-rations and the 10-in-1 Ration that Frisky started out with in France, as compared to the B ration he received beginning on 9 July 1944.

The Field Ration, Type K, or the K-ration was designed as a short duration, pocket-sized, individual “assault” ration for paratroopers and other specialized light infantry forces. It was fielded in three separately boxed meal units: breakfast, dinner (lunch) and supper. It saw first use in 1942 and was improved as the war went along, and many other units also used it, including the 371st Fighter Group.

K-Rations: “Food for Fighters” is a short, ten-minute, US Office of War Information film circa 1943. It gives some background on rations in general and at about 6:24 gets into the K ration. View it at:

Although three kinds of K-ration meals were made, the standard issue to the troops was only intended to be one K-ration per man per day. Calorie content of a single K-ration was ultimately improved to 2,830 calories, which was probably adequate for some personnel, but inadequate for highly active men. And during the Normandy campaign of 1944, Frisky was VERY active. This was noted in the combat zones around the world, and a 1943 field report did not recommend the use of the K-ration in excess of 10 days given its nutritional limitations.

K-ration Breakfast Unit: canned entrée Veal (early version), canned chopped ham and eggs (all subsequent versions), biscuits, Dextrose or Malted milk tablets (early version), dried fruit bar, pre-mixed Oatmeal Cereal (late version), Halazone water purification tablets, a four-pack of cigarettes, Dentyne or Wrigley chewing gum, instant coffee, and sugar (granulated, cubed, or compressed).  (Courtesy Wikipedia)

K-ration Breakfast Unit: canned entrée Veal (early version), canned chopped ham and eggs (all subsequent versions), biscuits, Dextrose or Malted milk tablets (early version), dried fruit bar, pre-mixed Oatmeal Cereal (late version), Halazone water purification tablets, a four-pack of cigarettes, Dentyne or Wrigley chewing gum, instant coffee, and sugar (granulated, cubed, or compressed). (Courtesy Wikipedia)

Fortunately, Frisky apparently had access to another ration in the early days at A-6, designated as the Ration, 10-in-1, usually called the “10-in-1” ration. This ration was intended to provide one meal for ten men. Development began in 1943, inspired by early experience with various other rations that were discontinued in mid-war, such as the Mountain ration, Jungle ration and the 5-in-1 ration, as well as the British “compo” or 14-in-1 ration.

Te Ration, 10-in-1, was introduced in service after experience gained with other field rations for troops engaged in combat operations around the world.  (Courtesy  X )

Te Ration, 10-in-1, was introduced in service after experience gained with other field rations for troops engaged in combat operations around the world. (Courtesy US Army Quartermaster History)

Essentially superseding the 5-in-1, used successfully by US forces in the North African campaign, the 10-in-1 was built as two 5-in-1s, which allowed for a greater variety in the contents. The number of menus was increased to five as compared to the three of the 5-in-1. A complete group breakfast and supper was provided in the 10-in-1, with a partial dinner (lunch) unit.

Contents of the 5-in-1 ration, an early war ration adapted for use in the 10-in-1 ration.  (Courtesy Y)

Contents of the 5-in-1 ration, an early war ration adapted for use in the 10-in-1 ration. (Courtesy US Army Quartermaster History)

A typical menu included such canned items as meat units, vegetables, biscuits, cereal, butter-substitute spread, jam, beverages, soluble coffee, evaporated milk, , pudding, candy, salt, and sugar.

Accessory items were cigarettes, matches, can opener, toilet paper, soap, towels, and water-purification (Halazone) tablets.

The partial dinner (lunch) unit was enclosed in a cellophane bag-in-carton for easy distribution to the individual soldier for his noontime meal. Within the unit were biscuits, a confection, beverage powder, sugar, gum, and a can opener. These items were provided on the theory that an individual “snack” was sufficient for midday meals, when there would be neither time nor opportunity to prepare the ration for group feeding.

Although at first report it was a welcome shift from the K ration and 10-in-1 to the Ration, Class B, or Type B ration, there was apparently some similarity between them, in that the B was prepared using canned or preserved ingredients, and did not use any fresh, frozen or refrigerated ingredients as found in the Class A ration. The big distinguishing feature seems to be that the Class B ration was prepared in a field kitchen, where it could be hot, better prepared, better seasoned and with a full dinner (lunch) meal made available.

"Speaking of firsts - here's the first mess hall in Normandy and naturally - the first chow hound.  (The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.)

“Speaking of firsts – here’s the first mess hall in Normandy and naturally – the first chow hound. (The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.)

But any improvement in the field is welcome, and Frisky was better fed at Ste Mère Eglise for the change. The Class B rations would suffice until perhaps some fresh, frozen or refrigerated ingredients of the Class A ration variety could be found or supplied, giving the unit yet another way to improve the fare that kept Frisky flying, fighting and winning.

371st Fighter Group P-47 Thunderbolt two-ship takeoff.  (The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.)

371st Fighter Group P-47 Thunderbolt two-ship takeoff. (The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.)

References

The 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O., Army & Navy Pictorial Publishing, Baton Rouge, LA, 1946

405th Fighter Squadron History for July, 1944

Army Operational Rations – Historical Background, US Army Quartermaster History, at: http://www.qmfound.com/army_rations_historical_background.htm

K-ration, entry on Wikipedia at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K-ration

10-in-1 ration, entry on Wikipedia at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/10-in-1_food_parcel

5-in-1 ration, entry on Wikipedia at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5-in-1_ration

B-ration, entry on Wikipedia at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B-ration

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Lost and Found

As the campaign for Normandy continued, the 371st Fighter Group settled into its new home at A-6 Airfield near Ste Mère Eglise. By the 8th of August, it had really become a mystery as to where the ground echelon of the group was at.

The last members and equipment of the group had rolled out of Bisterne on 30 June, and should have arrived at A-6 already. The group’s “attached” units found their way to A-6 in the first week of July.  But not the remainder of the group itself.  One had to wonder if they got lost looking for A-6, or was it known as Ste Mère Eglise? Or should it be called Beuzzeville, or perhaps La Londe? Having several names from which to choose, the new airfield could be a bit elusive to those unfamiliar with Normandy.

A Navy LST disgorges a jeep on the shores of Normandy, 1944 (The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.)

A Navy LST disgorges a tiny jeep on the shores of Normandy, 1944 (The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.)

Members of the 405th Fighter Squadron also speculated on this matter, and expressed such thoughts as “They’ve gone back to the States, why didn’t I stay with them?” or “They’ve all been sunk in the channel. I’m glad I didn’t stay with them.” But as the war continued on anyway, they all seemed to agree that Frisky was “…doing right well without them anyhow.” This impression was, in part, due to the fact of the arrival of increased numbers of replacement pilots and the type of mission being flown.  As a result the flying time for the veteran pilots was cut back a bit.

But the missing ground echelon and change in individual pilot tempo did not allow for missed missions, and whenever the weather was good, Frisky flew. Such was the case on July 8, 1944. The 405th Fighter Squadron flew a morning mission of armed reconnaissance on that day, which is described in an operational report generated afterwards by the 371st Fighter Group which read:

John W. Leonard led the 405th Fighter Squadron morning mission on 8 July 1944.  (The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.)

Capt. John W. Leonard led the 405th Fighter Squadron morning mission on 8 July 1944. (The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.)

“The 405th Sq. led by Capt. Leonard, took off at 1045 to perform armed recce south to T-673508. Sq. arrived over target 1115-1200. Results of bombing good. 6 hits on or near bridge at T-2352, 1220 B, 1 miss S of bridge, bridge still standing when left. 2 hits on flak position T-2521; 2 on flak position T-5050; 2 jettisoned in woods T-4851. 1 bomb ret. 7 A/C with bombs, 4 as top cover. 1 staff car, one half track destroyed, one truck damaged. One staff car stopped at T-7026. Half track going NE, both were strafed and left burning. Truck damaged at T-7026 while stopped. Gun positions and troops at T-2449. 2 plus gun positions silenced by Capt. Leonard. Flak intense and accurate at T-4015. 10/10 stralics (sic) with base at 4,500, vis. Under 3.4 mile except in rain. T. D. 1250.”

German Wehrmacht halftrack destroyed by 9th Air Force fighter-bombers on 29 July 1944 in France.  (Courtesy Air Force Museum)

German Wehrmacht halftrack destroyed by 9th Air Force fighter-bombers on 29 July 1944 in France. (Courtesy Air Force Museum)

During the mission, Captain Luther P. “Luke” Canup was hit by flak near Vire, some 24 miles south-southeast of St. Lo, while leading his flight in P-47D-20 serial number 42-76454.  Forced to bail out, he did so just before his stricken aircraft exploded. The 371st report on the mission succinctly noted the event: “Capt. Luther P. Canup hit by flak and was seen to bail out and floating down in open parachute at T-4015,” no doubt a victim of the “intense and accurate” flak reported above. For the rest of the month squadron members hoped he would be able to evade capture and turn up at A-6 but as things turned out, this veteran of 41 combat missions was captured and became a “guest” of the Third Reich.  He was placed in care of the Luftwaffe, at a “Kriegsgefangenen-Mannschafts-Stammlager,” a POW camp known as Stalag Luft III in Sagan, Silesia, in eastern Germany.

Luther P. Canup of the 405th Fighter Squadron completed 41 combat missions before he was shot down by German anti-aircraft fire on 8 July 1944 over France.  He was taken prisoner and spend the rest of the war in various POW camps.  (The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.)

Photo of Lt. (later Capt.) Luther P. Canup of the 405th Fighter Squadron, who completed 41 combat missions before he was shot down by German anti-aircraft fire on 8 July 1944 over France. He was taken prisoner and spend the rest of the war in various POW camps. (The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.)

Stalag Luft III is well-known as the place of the “The Great Escape,” which occurred in March, 1944 – although there were no Americans involved in this epic prison break, unlike depicted by Steve McQueen in the movie. Less well known is the smaller-scale escape by three men, involving a sort of Trojan Horse, which occurred in October, 1943.

Aerial view of Stalag Luft III, Sagan, Germany, during World War II.  The camp was the site of “The Great Escape” in March, 1944, and was later evacuated as Russian forces approached, the POWs being force marched west in winter weather. (Courtesy XYZ)

Aerial view of Stalag Luft III, Sagan, Germany, during World War II. The camp was the site of “The Great Escape” in March, 1944, and was later evacuated as Russian forces approached, the POWs being force marched west in winter weather. (Courtesy Pegasusarchive.org)

Luke Canup did not stay at Stalag Luft III, however, for as the Russians advanced later in the war, the Germans force marched 80,000 POWs from various POW camps to other stalags farther west. He eventually ended up in Bavaria, at Stalag XIII-D, Nürnberg Langwasser 49 11, according to POW information at the ww2pow.info website. (Note: there were other Stalag XIII camps, e.g. Stalag XIII-A, XIII-B and XIII-C) Stalag XIII was a real stalag, not the Stalag 13 of “Hogan’s Heroes” comedy fame, unfortunately. A number of POWs did not survive this wintry trek, though Luke did, and he survived the war. (Luther Canup passed away in 2010)

In fact, it appears that Canup survived another POW evacuation by the Germans, based upon a move of POWs from Stalag XIII-D on 12 April 1945 and the presence of his hand writing on a Nazi flag that once flew over the city hall in Moosburg, Germany, located some 94 miles southeast of Nuremberg and 35 miles northeast of Munich, Germany.

The Moosburg POW flag, which flew over the city hall in Moosburg, Germany, before it was replaced by General Patton’s troops with the American flag in Late April, 1945.  It was signed by more than 100 former POWs, including Luther Canup.  (Courtesy 303rd Bomb Group Association)

The Moosburg POW flag, which flew over the city hall in Moosburg, Germany, before it was replaced by General Patton’s troops with the American flag in late April, 1945. It was signed by more than 100 former POWs, including Luther Canup. (Courtesy 303rd Bomb Group Association)

Moosburg was the site of Stalag VII-A, and was the largest POW camp in Germany, with over 80,000 men by the end of the war in a camp designed for holding 10,000.  Even as German forces retreated before the Allied onslaught they tried to retain control of POWs.

Aerial view of Stalag VII-A near Moosburg, Germany, site of the largest German POW camp in World War II.  (Courtesy XYZ)

Aerial view of Stalag VII-A near Moosburg, Germany, site of the largest German POW camp in World War II. (Courtesy Moosburg.org)

When he was liberated by the soldiers of General Patton’s 14th Armored Division on 29 April 1945, Luke Canup became one of over 100 former POWs who signed the Nazi flag that was removed from the top of the city hall in Moosburg when that flag was replaced by the American flag. The POW flag was returned to the US by a member of the 303rd Bomb Group, and was eventually donated to the Mighty Eighth Air Force Museum in Pooler, Georgia.

Closeup view of the Moosburg POW flag, showing the rank, name and hometown of 405th Fighter Squadron pilot Luther P. Canup.  (Courtesy 303rd Bomb Group Association)

Closeup view of the Moosburg POW flag, showing the rank, name and hometown of 405th Fighter Squadron pilot Luther P. Canup. (Courtesy 303rd Bomb Group Association)

Meanwhile, back at A-6, the loss of an experienced pilot such as Luke Canup had several implications. One was on morale of the unit, as it was a telling event to young and bold fighter pilots to see an experienced comrade suddenly vanish from their midst. They were not so invincible.

Another effect was on the combat efficiency of the unit, as an experienced leader would have to be replaced. Fortunately, experience was being accrued all the time, and a unit never ceased operations because of such individual losses. Depending on the level of loss, say for a flight commander, operations officer, etc., the ripple effect could be greater, and several people might be given new responsibilities as they stepped up in echelon to replace the vacancy resulting from the missing man.

But any way they looked at it, loss or not, the show still went on, and so it did in the 405th Fighter Squadron and the 371st Fighter Group, with a war yet to be won.

Aerial view of A-6 Advanced Landing Ground, outside Ste Mère Eglise, France, in 1944.  The 371st Fighter Group flew from A-6 from June to September, 1944.  (The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.)

Aerial view of A-6 Advanced Landing Ground, outside Ste Mère Eglise, France, in 1944. The 371st Fighter Group flew from A-6 from June to September, 1944. (The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.)

However, as Saturday, 8 July transpired, there was a small joy to be had at Ste Mère Eglise when the remainder of the ground echelon finally showed up. They were greeted “…with the usual “horror” and “hero” stories of the veterans who had been here (at A-6) since “practically D-Day.” Finally, the full 371st Fighter Group team was together again, on the continent, in action against the enemy. The new arrivals would soon be put to work helping the rest of the team continue to batter the Wehrmacht in Normandy and beyond.

References
405th Fighter Squadron history, July, 1944

POW Database information for Luther P. Canup, at: http://www.ww2pow.info/index.php?page=directory&rec=50797

Biographical information on Luther Paul Canup, at: http://www4.ncsu.edu/~lbpage/page-frick/ps33/ps33_116.html

Stalag Luft III, entry in Wikipedia, at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stalag_Luft_III

Stalag Luft III aerial view, at: http://www.pegasusarchive.org/pow/SL3/PicSL_3_Aerial.htm

Stalag XIII-D, Wikipedia entry, at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stalag_XIII-D

History of the Real Stalag 13, at: http://www.uncommon-travel-germany.com/stalag_13.html

The March (1945), Wikipedia entry, at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_March_%281945%29

Moosburg POW Flag, at: http://www.303rdbga.com/pow-moosburg-flag.html

Stalag VII A: The Liberation, at: http://www.moosburg.org/info/stalag/14theng.html

Stalag VII A: Aerial views, at: http://www.moosburg.org/info/stalag/luftbilder.html

 

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Saved by a Shagbat

On 2 July 1944, the 371st Fighter Group was off operations. Lousy weather, fit for fighting but not for flying, kept the group out of action. Taking advantage of the break in operations, 406th Fighter Squadron Commander Maj. Taylor decided to take four of the new pilots in the squadron on a cross-country flight from A-6 Airfield across the English Channel to England. It seemed just a routine hop as Maj. Taylor took off for Great Britain with Lts. Miller, Landrum, Flory and Pippes.

406th Fighter Squadron Commander and leader on both D-Day missions was Major Edwin D. Taylor.  He led the squadron from July, 1943, to September, 1944.  (Courtesy “The 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.” via 406FS P-47 Pilot Francis E. Madore)

406th Fighter Squadron Commander, Major Edwin D. Taylor. He led the squadron from July, 1943, to September, 1944. (Courtesy “The 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.” via 406FS P-47 Pilot Francis E. Madore)

But as life goes, what seemed normal did not turn out that way. Airborne over the Channel and halfway across, Lt. James N. Landrum in P-47D-20-RE serial number 42-76523 reported the oil pressure on his powerful Pratt& Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp engine beginning to drop away fast. Maj. Taylor told him to climb, and he reached about 1,500 feet before the engine cut out completely, just before Landrum bailed out. The flight contacted Air-Sea Rescue for help and shortly thereafter an RAF Supermarine Walrus seaplane headed out to fetch Lt. Landrum from the sea off the southwest tip of the Isle of Wight.

Supermarine Walrus airacft as used by the RAF in the Air-Sea Rescue role during World War II.  (Courtesy Wallpaperhere.com)

British Supermarine Walrus aircraft as used by the RAF in the Air-Sea Rescue role during World War II. (Courtesy Wallpaperhere.com)

The RAF’s No. 276 Squadron, an Air-Sea Rescue unit based in the southwest of England, may have been the unit which recovered Lt. Landrum from the sea. The Supermarine Walrus, nicknamed the “Shagbat” among other things, was designed by the same designer of the famous Supermarine Spitfire fighter, R.J. Mitchell. Although it was an ungainly looking aircraft compared to the sexy Spitfire, but it did its job very well, and was a mainstay in RAF ASR during World War II. Of note, British ASR squadrons also used the Spitfire fighter in a spotting role to look for downed aircrews at sea. No. 276 Squadron had the Spitfire Mk VB variant for this role at this time of the war.

Supermarine Spitfire Mk VB, serial BL591, code BA-U, of RAF No. 277 Sqn ASR, circa Mid 1944.  (Courtesy Axis and Allies Paintworks.com)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk VB, serial BL591, code BA-U, of RAF No. 277 Sqn ASR, circa Mid 1944. (Courtesy Axis and Allies Paintworks.com)

For the unfortunate fliers, the weather was lousy in England too, but through dint of persistence, the flight was able to locate Christchurch Airfield, on the English coast in Dorset, some seven miles south of Frisky’s first home in the E.T.O. at Bisterne Airfield. The icing on the cake was yet to play out, however, and as the aircraft landed at Christchurch Airfield, Lt. Robert J. Miller in P-47D-11-RE serial number 42-75265 overran the end of the runway and then his aircraft overturned, being completely demolished in the process. Fortunately, the spine of the Razorback version of the Jug keep him from being crushed, and he came out of it unscathed.

View of a nosed-over P-47 Razorback from another unit, the 375FS of the 361FG, 8th Air Force.  The Razorback spine offered a chance of pilot survival from such a mishap.  (Courtesy  website)

View of a nosed-over P-47 Razorback from another unit, the 375FS of the 361FG, 8th Air Force. The Razorback spine offered a chance of pilot survival from such a mishap. (Courtesy Asisbiz.com)

Operational losses of aircraft and personnel were frequent during the war, and for all kinds of reasons. They added to the attrition affecting a combat unit. In the case of the 406FS, these losses gave valuable experience in airmanship and survival, if somewhat traumatically administered by circumstance, to a pair of young pilots flying and fighting for our country in a time of war. Fortunately, replacement P-47 aircraft could be made readily available – , and the 406FS continued combat operations without missing a step.

At The Liverpool docks, a huge 60-ton cranes gently lifts a 6-ton Republic P-47 Thunderbolt from the flight deck of an aircraft carrier.  Note aircaft i foreground seemingly precariopusly perched atop a truck that will bring ti through Liverpool's streets and out of town to an airfield.  (Courtesy Warbird Information Exchange)

At The Liverpool docks, a huge 60-ton crane gently lifts a 6-ton Republic P-47 Thunderbolt from the flight deck of an aircraft carrier. Note aircaft i foreground seemingly precariopusly perched atop a truck that will bring ti through Liverpool’s streets and out of town to an airfield. (Courtesy Warbird Information Exchange)

References

371FG and 406FS histories for July, 1944

July 1944 USAAF Overseas Accident Reports, at: http://www.aviationarchaeology.com/src/AARmonthly/Jul1944O.htm

Joe Baugher’s USAF serial numbers, at: http://www.joebaugher.com/usaf_serials/1942_4.html
RAF – 276 Squadron History, at: http://www.raf.mod.uk/history/276squadron.cfm and also at http://www.rafweb.org/Sqn276-280.htm

Galdorisi, George and Phillips, Thomas, “Leave No Man Behind: The Saga of Combat Search and Rescue”

Supermarine Walrus painting from Wallpaper Here website, at: http://www.wallpaperhere.com/Supermarine_Walrus_61960/download_1152x864

Spitfire painting from Axis and Allies Paintworks.com website, at:  http://www.axis-and-allies-paintworks.com/download.php?view.443

P-47 image from Warbird Information Exchange website, at: http://www.warbirdinformationexchange.org/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?f=3&t=51576

P-47 nose-over image from Asisbiz.com website, at: http://www.asisbiz.com/il2/P-47D/Republic-P-47-Thunderbolt.html

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A Summer of Sacrifice Begins: Remembering Harry W. “Pop” Strahlendorf

On this day in 1944, June 24, P-47 Thunderbolt pilot 2nd Lt. Harry Strahlendorf of the 404th Fighter Squadron took off in his aircraft, named “Eddie Nor II” after his wife Edna Lenore, from A-6 Airfield near Ste. Mère-Église on a combat mission. The squadron’s planes and pilots had flown over to A-6 from Bisterne Airfield in England only the day before, 23 June, but with the weather suitable for flying the group continued combat missions without letup.

2nd Lt. Harry W. Strahlendorf poses next to his P-47D Thunderbolt "Eddie Nor II,in the spring of 1944.  He was killed in action on 24 June 1944 near Cherbourg, France (Courtesy Harry W. Strahlendorf, Jr.)

2nd Lt. Harry W. Strahlendorf poses next to his P-47D Thunderbolt “Eddie Nor II,” in the spring of 1944. He was killed in action on 24 June 1944 near Cherbourg, France (Courtesy Mr. Harry W. Strahlendorf, Jr.)

June had been a rough month for the squadron. On D-Day Lt. Joseph E. LaRochelle was shot down by anti-aircraft fire and captured. On June 8 Lt. Harry W. Hohl, Jr., and F/O’s Edwin S. Humphreys and Wesley R. Izzard went missing in action from aerial attack by the German Luftwaffe. Lt Willis R. Brown was wounded in action. On June 17, Lt. Glen L. Banks bailed out over France after his engine failed. These losses were from just one of the three fighter squadrons in the group, and indicated the painful cost of doing business in the big leagues of air combat with the enemy in Europe.  Though these men were missed, the missions continued.

The 371st Fighter Group generated an Oprep A, No. 7, for the 24 hours ending Sunset on 24 June 1944. It was the operational report from the group to higher headquarters on their accomplishment of 371FG missions under Mission/Order No. M1U-14, from IX TAC.

Lt. Strahlendorf took off on the first mission of the day, described in this Oprep as follows:

“Major Gunther leading, took off at 0756 with 8 D/B and 4 escorts. Squadron arrived over target area at 0820 (Strong point at front lines Cherbourg). 7 planes attacked area designated by smoke from 4,000 ft. at angle of 45 degrees with release at 1,000. Results were excellent. (Grids were 0153202). 2 miles W. of Target, moderate, accurate heavy flak was encountered. 6 gun emplacements were observed at 0149194. 2/10 clouds at 2,000 ft. with visibility 5 miles prevailed. Time down was at 0905…2nd Lt. Harry W. Strahlendorf…A/C was hit by flak and crashed in vicinity of Les Ingoufs. No one saw him bail out.”

P-47 Thunderbolt flown by Lt. Harry W. "Pop" Strahlendorf in combat during 1944.  (Courtesy Harry W. Strahlendorf, Jr.)

404th Fighter Squadron P-47 Thunderbolt “9Q-S” flown by Lt. Harry W. “Pop” Strahlendorf in combat during 1944. (Courtesy Mr. Harry W. Strahlendorf, Jr.)

The sad fact of the matter was that Lt. Strahlendorf did not bail out. He was on his 48th combat mission, attacking enemy gun emplacements at Fort du Roule at Cherbourg when his P-47D-15 Thunderbolt, serial number 42-76345, was apparently struck by German 88mm anti-aircraft fire from that very site, which scored a direct hit on his P-47, completely shearing off the tail. Without its tail, the aircraft plummeted to the ground and crashed in nearby Octeville, killing him instantly. He was 29 years old, older than most of the other pilots in their early 20s, who called him “Pop.” They were devastated by his loss.

Fort du Roule located at Cherbourg's inner harbor showing damage from Allied bombardment, 8 July 1944.  Several ganti-aircraft gun emplacements, circular concrete revetments, appear on top of the fort's surface.   (U.S. National Archives)

Fort du Roule located at Cherbourg’s inner harbor showing damage from Allied bombardment, 8 July 1944. Several anti-aircraft gun emplacements, circular concrete revetments, appear on top of the fort’s surface. (U.S. National Archives)

Octeville citizens quickly buried his body, next to his aircraft. The area was liberated two days later and Lt. Strahlendorf’s body was later re-interred at the temporary American cemetery called Ste. Mere Eglise #2. This was only about a mile from A-6 Airfield from which he had taken off on that fateful day. In 1948, his body came home to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Final resting place for a valiant air warrior, 2d Lt. Harry W. Strahlendorf, in the Greenmount Cemetery, Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania (Courtesy Mr. Harry W. Strahlendorf, Jr.)

Final resting place for a valiant air warrior, 2d Lt. Harry W. Strahlendorf, in the Greenmount Cemetery, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Courtesy Mr. Harry W. Strahlendorf, Jr.)

But before Lt. Strahlendorf’s broken body was taken from Octeville, grateful French citizens were already making efforts to remember him and his brave sacrifice.

Mr. Harry W. Strahlendorf, Jr., Lt. Strahlendorf’s son whom he never met, the son who never met his father, is proud of his father’s service for the United States and for freedom. On Veteran’s Day in 2001, he shared a story of the French response to his fallen father with some elementary school children at a school assembly. He told them about a ten-year old French girl named Janine Letulle, whose father had taken her to the countryside away from the militarily important Cherbourg area as the battle for Normandy erupted. He told them:

“One day, several months later, Janine’s daddy came for her. He told her that Octeville was now free, liberated by the American soldiers. He said that he wanted her to remember these men who had come from over 3000 miles away to save France from the German invaders.

When they arrived in Octeville, it was raining. Janine’s father did not take her directly home. Instead he took her to a street across the valley from where they lived. He told her that he wanted to show her a place that was very special, where one hero had given his life for her.

As they rounded a street corner, Janine saw wreckage from an airplane. The airplane had a white star on it. Beside the wreckage, a wooden cross rose out of a mound of earth. Hanging from the cross was a military hat. Janine wondered what this was all about. ‘Papa,’ she asked, ‘why have you brought me here?’

Her father replied, ‘Janine, this is the place where a brave American pilot died only two weeks ago, and I wanted to show you this place so that you will never forget what this man, and men like him, have done for France. This man is our Liberator. I never want you to forget that he came here, so far from his home, to save us. He gave his life for France, for Europe and the world. You must never forget!’

Janine was deeply touched, for she realized that this mound of earth was the grave of the pilot, this unknown man, her Liberator.”

The citizens of Octeville haven’t forgotten. In 1994, they dedicated “Square Strahelendorf” in their town. Lt. Strahlendorf’s son Harry and his wife Ann made if to France to attend the dedication and remembered: “Fifty years to the day of my father’s sacrifice, I stood on his crash site with my wife, Ann. It was June 24, 1994. We had been invited by the French people to attend what they called ‘a memorial ceremony.’ They had a surprise for us that day. Little did I know that they had created a beautiful park on my dad’s crash site and named it for their Liberator, my father.”

“It’s a beautiful little park in the center of town,” Strahlendorf said. It has wooden benches, maple trees, gravel walkways and a collection of white stones arranged in the shape of the state of Pennsylvania.”

The moving ceremony that followed was a sincere expression of the appreciation conveyed on the monument marking the crash site, which is inscribed as follows:
The monument marking the crash spot contains this inscription:

“TO THE MEMORY OF THE AMERICAN
LT. HARRY W. STRAHLENDORF
PILOT OF THE 371 FG – 404 SQUADRON
9TH U.S. AIR FORCE
WHO GAVE HIS LIFE ON THIS SPOT
DURING THE AERIAL ASSAULT IN
THE COURSE OF THE LIBERATION OF
CHERBOURG
JUNE 24, 1944″

Monument dedicated to 2nd Lt. Harry W. Strahlendorf, at "Square Strahelendorf" in Cherbourg-Octeville, France.  (Courtesy Harry W. Strahlendorf)

Monument dedicated to 2nd Lt. Harry W. Strahlendorf, at “Square Strahlendorf” in Cherbourg-Octeville, France. (Courtesy Mr. Harry W. Strahlendorf, Jr.)

Following the commemoration, Strahlendorf met a man, Monsieur Launey, then in his late 70s, who for the past 50 years had placed a rose on the spot where his father made his supreme sacrifice.

Indeed, the residents of Octeville still remember. On 21 June 2014, grateful citizens of France held a ceremony commemorating the 70th Anniversary of Lt. Strahlendorf’s sacrifice at his crash site on the Rue du Poitou in Cherbourg-Octeville, at the Square Strahlendorf.

French citizens of Octeville gather to remember Harry W. "Pop" Strahelendorf at "Square Strahelendorf, 21 June 2014.  (Courtesy Mr. Harry W. Strahlendorf, Jr.)

French citizens of Octeville gather to remember 2nd Lt. Harry W. “Pop” Strahelendorf at “Square Strahelendorf, 21 June 2014. (Courtesy Mr. Harry W. Strahlendorf, Jr.)

So on this day, 24 June 24 2014, we salute the service and sacrifice of Lt. Harry W. “Pop” Strahlendorf! It was only by efforts like his, engaging the enemy in mortal combat, that the oppressed were freed from fascism in World War II. Freedom is never free, not then, and not now, a lesson we should all remember and heed.

We salute Harry W. Strahlendorf, Jr., who honors his father and his memory, searching for information on his loss, making the journey to Normandy to commemorate him with grateful French citizens, and creating tributes to Lt. Strahlendorf in the news media and the internet.

We also salute the French citizens, the Normans of Octeville, who faithfully remember Lt. Strahlendorf of the 371st Fighter Group. May God bless their loyalty to his remembrance, and preserve for our people on each shore the liberty and freedom that makes this life a wonderful journey.

References

American World War II Orphans Network (AWON) memorial page for 1Lt Harry William Strahlendorf, at: http://www.awon.org/awstrahl.html

A Veterans’ Day, 2001 Talk to an Elementary School Assembly, Made by Harry Strahlendorf, at: http://www.awon.org/p47harry.html

Square Strahlendorf page on Facebook, at: https://www.facebook.com/pages/Square-Strahlendorf/182717048470834

“Uncovering A Valorous Dad Delco Man Finds ‘Pop’ Is A Hero To French Town,” 1 August 1994, posted at: http://articles.philly.com/1994-08-01/news/25841077_1_french-town-war-letters-national-archives

Aviation Archaeological Investigation and Research (AAIR) website, MACR entry on Strahlendorf, Harry W., at: http://www.aviationarchaeology.com/src/dbmpilot.asp?Pilot=strahlendorf&Submit7=Go

Fort du Roule photo at:  http://ww2db.com/image.php?image_id=3456

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Bragging Rights: First USAAF Combat Unit Based in France

One of the “claims to fame” of the 371st Fighter Group is that of being the first USAAF combat unit to be based on the European Continent soon after D-Day.

By the 11th of June, word went around at Frisky’s home ‘drome at Bisterne Airfield that an advanced echelon (advon) was to be assembled and to be sent off to France in order to set up flying operations at a yet to be determined advanced landing ground (ALG), at a destination perhaps not even yet taken from the enemy. The ALG would be similar to that which Frisky used at Bisterne. So preparations were made in the unit to identify the men and equipment that would be first in France.

On 13 June 1944, the 1220th MP Company, Det “A” departed Bisterne for the marshaling area. They were joined by elements from the group HQ which left early the next day, at 0500 and 0900. The flying squadrons also contributed to this “advon” with personnel and vehicles rolling out on June 14. The 406FS history identified the marshaling area as being near Weymouth, England. The 404FS history records they were loaded aboard U.S. Navy LST numbers 50 and 502. The 405FS history records waterproofing its vehicles after arrival at the marshaling area, boarding transport at 2100 hours on 15 June, and finding out that they would be headed to an airfield near Ste. Mère-Église, a contested area near the active front. So much for the conventional wisdom of the Air Corps going to cushy bases, but Frisky was up to the challenge.

USS LST-502 at anchor in the left background off Omaha Beach, circa 10 June 1944. In the foreground "Rhino" ferry RHF-19 lands vehicles on Omaha Beach. In the right center distance is the sunken hulk of the old British battleship Centurion, which had been scuttled as part of the Omaha Beach Gooseberry artificial breakwater. (Courtesy US Navy , via Navsource)

USS LST-502 at anchor in the left background off Omaha Beach, circa 10 June 1944. In the foreground “Rhino” ferry RHF-19 lands vehicles on Omaha Beach. This LST is one of a pair which brought the advanced echelon of the 404FS to land at Utah Beach on 17 June 1944.  (Courtesy US Navy , via Navsource)

It appears that weather caused a delay in the arrival and disembarking of the 371FG in Normandy. The 406FS history mentions having to remain aboard LST another night due to stormy weather and rough conditions at sea. But the next day, 17 June, all elements landed at Utah Beach. The 404FS records landing at Utah, Sugar, Red Beach on the morning of the 17th. The 405th disembarked at 1200, proceeded to a de-waterproofing station, stripped the vehicles of that gear and headed out, to arrive at A-6 by 1500. Wrote the 405FS squadron historian “On the convoy ride we all got our first view of the stupidity and destruction of war.” The 406FS history merely records their advon arrived the same day.

The 371FG Warbook remarks that for thiose traveling on vehicles, “…the trip from the beach to the bivouac area was not at all unpleasant. They exchanged friendly insults with the infantry as they passed, going in the same direction. The Footsloggers were amazed that the Air Corps Groundlings should be venturing so close to where the bullets were flying; Frisky’s cohorts yelled something about being there to keep the thick Infantry skulls from being cracked by the Boche. The verbal exchanges smacked of mutual admiration.”

Not everyone was fortunate to ride in a convoy to the new field. Some had to make a seven mile march to get there, as the Warbook recorded, with “…the heavy packs, the hot sun above, and the “Achtung! Minen!” signs on either side. Identifying organizational code markers, Jayhawk, Bluebell, Jawbone, hastily tacked up to every possible post of fence – like Burma Shave ads – struck a peculiarly comforting American note.”

The 405th fortuitously arrived and quickly claimed a bivouac area near the perimeter track of the field which already had fox holes dug into it, saving the men hours of digging. Scant days before these positions shielded combat troops battling the enemy and combat engineers building the field.

Beuzeville Airfield (A-6) (Beuzeville-au-Plain) under construction near Holy Mother Church. The 819th EAB installation of wire mesh on the square SMT Work began on June 7, fifty men were at work on the airfield when a firefight between U.S. paratroopers and German soldiers killed seven. The photo lists a date of 17 June, the date the image was taken, but also the date the 371st FG began flying into the airfield. To the left two CG-4 Waco gliders are parked.  (Courtesy Wikipedia)

Beuzeville Airfield (A-6) (Beuzeville-au-Plain) under construction near Holy Mother Church. The 819th EAB installation of wire mesh on the square SMT Work began on June 7, fifty men were at work on the airfield when a firefight between U.S. paratroopers and German soldiers killed seven. The photo lists a date of 17 June, the date the image was taken, but also the date the 371st FG began flying into the airfield. To the left two CG-4 Waco gliders are parked. (Courtesy Wikipedia)

It should be mentioned that in this transition period, 371FG fighters were active from the homefield, and also began using advanced landing grounds which began to open up as places to land and refuel, or recover a battle damaged aircraft. June 15 saw the 406FS escort a C-47 into A-1, St. Pierre du Mont. On 17 June, the 406FS flew a morning mission from Bisterne, then landed at A-2, Cricqueville-en-Bessin, at 0745 in order to refuel, departed at 1040 to conduct a second mission, and then returned to Bisterne. The next day, 18 June, Lt. Thiede of the 406FS landed his battle-damaged ship at A-6, Beuzzeville, and later the same day Lt. Unruh brought his damaged ship down at A-2.

Although the 371FG claims to be the first AAF unit based in France, there is at least one other known competing claim to being the first AAF unit to be based in France. That being the 366th Fighter Group, another P-47 outfit of 9th Air Force which established its advanced echelon at A-1 Airfield, St. Pierre du Mont, near Omaha Beach. It’s of note that these groups today are both based in the greater Pacific Northwest, with the 371FG, now the 142d Fighter Wing, at Portland ANG base in Oregon,

An Oregon Air National Guard F-15C Eagle takes off from the Portland Air National Guard Base, Portland, Ore., on October 2nd, 2010.  (U.S. Air Force Photograph by SSgt John Hughel, 142nd Fighter Wing Public Affairs)

An Oregon Air National Guard F-15C Eagle takes off from the Portland Air National Guard Base, Portland, Ore., on October 2nd, 2010. (U.S. Air Force Photograph by Staff Sgt. John Hughel, 142nd Fighter Wing Public Affairs)

and the 366FG, now the 366th Fighter Wing, at Mountain Home AFB in Idaho.

F-15E Strike Eagles of the 366th Fighter Wing perform a low-level training mission over the Sawtooth Mountain Range in Idaho   (U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Debbie Hernandez)

F-15E Strike Eagles of the 366th Fighter Wing perform a low-level training mission over the Sawtooth Mountain Range in Idaho (U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Debbie Hernandez)

Given that the movement of the entire fighter group would take many days more beyond the arrival of the advanced echelon on 17 June, it seems the bragging rights are centered on which unit got its advanced echelon into place the earliest. Two standard references for USAAF unit history to evaluate this issue are “Air Force Combat Units of World War II” and “Combat Squadrons of the Air Force World War II.”

The first reference, “Air Force Combat Units,” includes the combat group histories, and shows the 371FG at Beuzzeville (A-6) as on June 1944, with no specific date of arrival in the month. The 366FG is shown as being at St. Pierre du Mont (A-1) as of 17 June 1944.

So we turn to the “Combat Squadrons” reference and look at the dates of arrival in France for the pertinent individual fighter squadrons. In the 371FG, the 404FS date for Beuzzeville is shown as circa 23 June, which is when the squadron’s aircraft arrived from Bisterne to be permanently based at A-6. The 405FS arrival date is shown as 17 June, which is when the advanced echelon arrived. The 406FS arrival date is circa 17 June. As for the 366FG, its 389FS arrival date at A-1 is 17 June; the 390FS on 20 June; the 391FS on 17 June. It looks like a tie for at least two of the squadrons to be in France as of 17 June, though the 404FS official history cleary shows the squadron’s advon arrival on 17 June, which makes for all three of Frisky’s flying squadrons making it to A-6 on 17 June.

But without more definition of the specific times of arrivals of the advanced echelons of the two groups, it is hard to make a definitive judgment about which one was technically the “first” to base itself in France. And how does one define that, even if only looking at the advon? Is it based on just one squadron’s arrival time? Or is it based on the arrival and closure of the entire advon for the group, including the group HQ and the flying squadrons?

But for the purpose of this web log, it will assume that Frisky’s advon with all constituent parts made it all to A-6 first. And thus the 371st Fighter Group claims being the first USAAF combat unit to be based in France, shortly after D-Day, with a complete advanced echelon in place at A-6 Airfield on 17 June 1944.

 
References
Maurer, Maurer, Editor, “Air Force Combat Units of World War II,” AF Historical Research Agency website, accessed at: http://www.afhra.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-090529-055.pdf

Maurer, Maurer, Editor, “Combat Squadrons of the USAF World War II,” AF Historical Research Agency website, accessed at: http://www.afhso.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-101202-002.pdf

LST-502 entry at NavSource, accessed at: http://www.navsource.org/archives/10/16/160502.htm

“The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.” Army & Navy Pictorial Publishers, Baton Rouge, LA, 1946

Beuzeville Airfield, Wikipedia entry at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beuzeville_Airfield

Saint-Pierre-du-Mont Airfield, Wikipedia entry at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint-Pierre-du-Mont_Airfield

142FW F-15C image at: http://www.142fw.ang.af.mil/shared/media/photodb/photos/101002-F-8260H-150.jpg

366FW F-15E image at: http://www.12af.acc.af.mil/shared/media/photodb/photos/030624-F-8833H-054.jpg

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First Blood in the Air

One of these significant events to recall in 371st Fighter Group history is the first time the unit engaged in aerial combat with the enemy. It was on June 8, 1944, when Frisky first battled with the German Luftwaffe in air-to-air combat in the skies of Europe. The several engagements the group had that day showed the enemy was present, could strike with deadly speed, but could also be defeated.

On that day, the group flew three missions over Normandy, all patrols over the beach head at Normandy. The three fighter squadrons of the group covered the area northeast of Le Havre, France, between Isigny and Caen, and also the area NW of the beach head. The area northeast of Le Havre would prove to be the prime area of contact.

The morning mission covered the beach head from roughly 0615 to 0730. The 371FG was the third group that morning to cover the Normandy landing areas, so the enemy was well-aware that friendly fighters were about.

At 0645 a flight of the 404th Fighter Squadron, which was covering the Le Havre sector, was attacked from above by four German Me-109’s. Minutes later, another flight was jumped by four Me-109’s. 2nd Lt. Willis R. Brown’s aircraft was hit and he was wounded in the hand. Flight Officer Wesley R. Izzard was hit flying P-47D-15 serial number 42-76187 and bailed out 12 miles northeast of LeHavre, near Goderville. Izzard recounted the experience in his 1994 book, “Winged Boot” as follows: “There was a smashing explosion. I heard metal tearing metal. That is a sound you never forget. There was another blast and another. I turned my head around and an Me-109 was parked just off my tail, pumping bullet after bullet of 20mm cannon shells into my plane. That was the beginning of the end….I started to dive away from the Messerschmidt when he drilled a twenty through my canopy. It exploded in the cockpit just four inches from my head. Its explosion shattered my instrument panel into pieces of whipping wire, broken glass and shattered metal. That did it! Get out!”

F/O Wesley R. “Bob” Izzard of the 404FS fell victim to a Luftwaffe Me-109 on the morning of 8 June 1944.  He bailed out of his stricken P-47 and with the help of the French resistance was able to return to England by August, 1944.  He returned to flight duty and eventually completed 150 combat missions in the European Theater.  (Courtesy “Winged Boot”).

F/O Wesley R. “Bob” Izzard of the 404FS fell victim to a Luftwaffe Me-109 on the morning of 8 June 1944. He bailed out of his stricken P-47 and with the help of the French resistance was able to return to England by August, 1944. He returned to flight duty and eventually completed 150 combat missions in the European Theater. (Courtesy “Winged Boot”)

Izzard continued: “The last time I looked at my airspeed it was showing four hundred twenty-five miles an hour. You are not supposed to bail out of a P-47 over two hundred miles an hour I pushed my broken canopy back. I put both hands on my mirror, over the windscreen, and put my feet on the stick. This forced my plane into a vertical dive and threw me out of the plane tumbling into the ripping wind.” The Luftwaffe had drawn first blood. But the day was just beginning.

No other engagements occurred in the other sectors on the morning mission, and things were quiet in all sectors when the 371FG flew the midday mission. The third and last mission of the day saw several air engagements occur.

The 404th Fighter Squadron was patrolling the Isigny to Caen sector, and the overcast that day proved problematic to keeping the squadron together, and the flights got separated. One flight reached the Carentan area but the weather forces it to abort the patrol. The other flights of the squadron covered their sector from 1630 to 1715.

At 1650 hours, a 404th patrol flight encountered 12-15 Me-109s heading southwest in the Cormeilles area and engaged them. Capt George D. Pieck shot down one Me-109 in the fight, and described the engagement as follows:

Capt. George D. Pieck of the 404FS claimed a Luftwaffe Me-109 in the 371FG’s first day of air combat in Europe.  He went Missing in Action on 10 August 1944, over France. He is remembered on the Tablets of the Missing at the Brittany American Cemetery, St. James, France. (Courtesy “The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.”)

Capt. George D. Pieck of the 404FS claimed a Luftwaffe Me-109 in the 371FG’s first day of air combat in Europe. He went Missing in Action on 10 August 1944, over France. He is remembered on the Tablets of the Missing at the Brittany American Cemetery, St. James, France. (Courtesy “The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.”)

“I was leading Trademark Red Flight flying at 20,000 feet. I let down through a thin layer of clouds and breaking out at 19,000 feet saw about 15 ME 109’s at 12 O’clock level approaching us at 45 degrees. I called the flight to break left. At the same time the enemy aircraft broke in all directions. I singled one out and did one 360 degree turn with him, attempting to position myself. He broke off toward the deck and I followed him down giving him a four second burst with about 20 degrees of deflection. After following him down to 2,000 feet and realizing my altitude and angle of dive, I broke off. At this time the ME 109 was smoking and an unidentified piece flew off his ship. Considering the altitude, speed and angle of dive of the ME 109, I did not believe he could pull out. As I leveled off I looked back and saw an explosion on the ground. I claim one ME 109 destroyed.” His claim was verified by the flight’s element leader, Capt Harry P. Wagner.

But in the melee, 1st Lt. Harry W. Hohl in P-47D-22, s/n 42-25567, and F/O Edwin S. Humphreys, Jr., in P-47D-16, s/n 42-76081, went missing and did not return to base. A third flight from the squadron spotted four FW-190s west of Rouen at 6,000 feet, but did not pursue.

Meanwhile, the sector northeast of LeHavre covered by the 406th Fighter Squadron which arrived on station at 1615 heated up. At 1715, patrolling P-47s spotted enemy fighters firing rockets at Allied ships at Cabourg and went after them. 1st Lt. Charles E. Firestone described what happened: “While flying over Caen toward the coast at an altitude between 5 and 7,000 feet I called out seven bogies at three o’clock to Major Gray. They were firing rockets at shipping near Cabourg. They fired the rockets from about 5,000 feet and made left hand climbing turns 90 degrees away from their target.”

Lt. Firestone continued: “Major Gray turned after them. They continued their attack on the shipping unaware of our approach and I could see that they were FW-190s. Then they saw us and in a bank made a climbing turn toward the overcast. I started firing at one of the planes at 500 yards and (saw) strikes and flashes all over the plane before he was out of sight. I had followed into the overcast and when I turned out of it I could not find Major Gray, so I headed home. I claim one FW-190 damaged.” Major Gray also claimed one of the FW-190s as probably destroyed.

Zooming up and out of the clouds, some five minutes later another group of enemy fighters was spotted and engaged, and Maj. Rockford Gray from group staff, flying with the 406th, was able to shoot down two FW-190s. Then another FW-190 got onto his tail, but in Gray’s evasive maneuvers the German fighter crashed into the ground.

Maj. Rockford Gray, 371FG Staff, was flying with the 406FS on 8 June 1944.  He claimed three Luftwaffe FW-190s and another probable in the 371FG’s first day of air combat in Europe.  He was killed on 4 September 1944, at St. Mere Eglise, France, while returning from a combat mission.  (Courtesy “The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.”)

Maj. Rockford Gray, 371FG Staff, was flying with the 406FS on 8 June 1944. He claimed three Luftwaffe FW-190s and another probable in the 371FG’s first day of air combat in Europe. He was killed on 4 September 1944, at St. Mere Eglise, France, while returning from a combat mission. (Courtesy “The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.”)

Also at 1715, another flight of the 406th spotted a pair of FW-190s near Fecamp. Capt. Uno Salmi shot one down, and reported the engagement as follows:

“The squadron was patrolling the eastern flank of the assault area. I was leading Largo Blue Flight. We were flying at about 25,000 feet just south of Fecamp when Lt. Augarten, my wingman, called out two FW-190s behind and below us. I broke to the left, Lt. Chappas leading the second element, and Lt. Meade wingman, broke to the right. One FW-190 turned after Lt. Chappas’ element. One turned on my tail, but was driven off and pursued by Lt. Augarten.  I made a right turn after the first FW-190 closing in on the turn to about 300 yards before firing using a 30 degree deflection and observed a heavy concentration of strikes along the right wing. I closed in to 150 yards firing continuously and the right wing of the FW-190 came off. I could see hits along the fuselage and cockpit. It exploded in the air and crashed near Goderville. I did not see the pilot bail out. I claim one FW-190 destroyed.” His victory was witnessed and verified by Lt. Chappas.

Capt. Uno Salmi of the 406FS claimed a Luftwaffe FW-190 in the 371FG’s first day of air combat in Europe.  He went Missing in Action on 16 June 1944, near St. Lo, France.  He is remembered on the Tablets of the Missing at the Cambridge American Cemetery, Cambridge, England.  (Courtesy “The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.”)

Capt. Uno Salmi of the 406FS claimed a Luftwaffe FW-190 in the 371FG’s first day of air combat in Europe. He went Missing in Action on 16 June 1944, near St. Lo, France. He is remembered on the Tablets of the Missing at the Cambridge American Cemetery, Cambridge, England. (Courtesy “The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.”)

Meanwhile, Lt. Rudolph Augarten, joined by Lt. Robert R. Meade, pursued the other FW-190 which had attacked his flight leader. “He broke off his attack (on Capt Salmi) and headed for the deck flying about one hundred and fifty degrees and went straight out. I could see that his rudder was painted yellow and body green. I gave it full throttle and boost and went after him pursuing for forty miles, but I could never get closer than 700 yards. When I saw that I couldn’t catch him I fired even though he was out of range, firing about eight hundred rounds. I saw no strikes.”

Ever farther from the beachhead and consuming precious fuel, Augarten reluctantly gave up the pursuit, and he and Lt. Meade began their return for home at low level. But Meade had some kind of problem and could not complete the return of base; he bailed out 20 miles south of the Isle of Wight. Augarten noted a vessel approaching him and noted the location to report back at base.

And so concluded Frisky’s first day of air combat. The group claimed four FW-190s and one Me-109 destroyed, and four FW-190s probably destroyed, and achieved their purpose of defending the beachhead from enemy air attack.

It was a somewhat painful day with four pilot losses. But as things turned out, the group only lost one pilot permanently in the air battles of June 8, F/O Edwin S. Humphreys, Jr., who remains missing to this day. Two others, F/O Bob Izzard and 1st Lt. Harry Hohl were able to successfully evade with the help of the French Underground, and returned to England by August, while one, Lt. Meade, was picked up in the English Channel by a British destroyer and returned.

There were to be many more aerial engagements between the 371st Fighter Group and the German Luftwaffe in the days and months ahead. The group ultimately received credit for 71 aerial victories in World War II. No doubt the experience gained in this first air combat on 8 June 1944 helped them in those future battles, and made this day important in 371FG history, and is passed along with the group’s lineage and honors to the 142d Fighter Wing of the Oregon Air National Guard.

References

http://www.142fw.ang.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123413974

“The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.,” Army & Navy Publishers, Baton Rouge, LA, 1946

371FG History for June, 1944, and related operational reports

 

 

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Frisky’s Longest Day, June 6, 1944

Airpower played a vital role in the defeat of the Axis in World War II, and was key to the success of the Normandy landings in June, 1944. On so on this 70th anniversary of the D-Day landings, we take a moment to remember the contributions of the Airmen of the 371st Fighter Group.

Airpower for Normandy came in many forms. Troop carrier units brought airborne divisions from England to France, heavy, medium and light bombers pummeled a variety of targets from near the shore to inland. Reconnaissance aircraft scurried about to gather the latest images of the battlefield and other key points or areas of interest. Fighters protected the invasion fleet, and fighter bombers such as the 371st Fighter Group ranged inland attacking fixed targets and targets of opportunity.

As Frisky’s Longest Day began, however, all was silent at the home field of the 371st Fighter Group at Bisterne Airfield in England. Aircraft sounds reverberated in the skies over England and all the way over to France, but the 371st Fighter group had no tasking early on D-Day. Although the Allies had control of the skies for operations on 6 June, it was impossible to put the 8,000 Allied aircraft of all types available into the skies at the same time in order to achieve the desired effects. Some units had to wait for their turn to contribute to the effort.

Review of the 371FG records shows how that momentous day went for the group. The June, 1944 history records that “…everyone woke up early to find the sky darkened with planes of every variety thundering their way across the channel.” But still there were no orders from IX Fighter Command. Unit members were on their second cup of coffee in the morning as they listened to the radio waiting to hear the big news.

“Everyone was alerted and eager to get into the air.” Finally the news came in over the radio, “This morning Allied troops landed…” But the group had no orders, and “…ordinary work seemed of secondary importance…” though “every man’s thoughts were with the men who were storming the beaches of France at the moment and a unified prayer went out to these gallant troops, these our men.”

Around mid-day, the action finally began for Frisky, the nickname for the 371st Fighter Group. Group records do not have a copy of any teletype order for the first combat mission of the day, but do contain a hand written operations order, No. 346, from IX Fighter Command, which suggests it was received over the telephone. The hand written order indicated urgency “…time of takeoff and over target as soon as possible.”

D-Day targets for the group were “Military traffic on the following road network: Coutances to Carentan, Coutances to St. Lo, Coutances to La Haye-du-Puits, St. Lo to 1 mile SW of Bayeux, and from Vire to Isigny-sur-Vire-Caumont.” This would mostly help interdict the movement of German forces approaching the American landing beaches at Utah and Omaha.

371FG Targets on DDay

The group was ready to act and soon launched a total of 42 P-47’s from its three fighter squadrons, carrying three 500-lb bombs each, with AN/M103 nose and AN/M101-A1 tail fuzes set for instantaneous bursting. Thirteen more of the group’s P-47’s served as escorts for the dive-bombers, whilst two more were used for radio relay between the home base and the target area, for a total of 58 aircraft sent on the mission. Fifty seven would return.

First into the air was the 405th Fighter Squadron with 18 P-47’s at 1241, led by the squadron commander, Major Harvey L. Case, Jr. Due to weather conditions, they flew at 4,000 feet on their ingress, 14 of the aircraft carrying three 500-lb bombs each. Commencing their dive on the target, the railroad marshaling yard at Coutances, from 4,000 feet, at 30-degrees, they released their bombs at 1,500 feet and pulled out.

405th Fighter Squadron Commander and leader on both D-Day missions was Major Harvey L. Case, Jr.  He led the squadron from July, 1943, to September, 1944.  (Courtesy “The 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.” via 406FS P-47 Pilot Francis E. Madore)

405th Fighter Squadron Commander and leader on both D-Day missions was Major Harvey L. Case, Jr. He led the squadron from July, 1943, to September, 1944. (Courtesy “The 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.” via 406FS P-47 Pilot Francis E. Madore)

In addition to dive bombing they strafed trains at St. Lo and at La Haye-du-Puits. It is perhaps ironic that one of Frisky’s first targets on D-Day, La Haye-du-Puits, is near the family farm of Yvette Hamel, the French farmgirl later wounded by German artillery and adopted for recuperation by the 371st Fighter Group when the group was based in France at Sainte-Mère-Église.

Next into action was the 406th Fighter Squadron, 20 P-47’s up at 1254, led by the squadron’s Commanding Officer, Major Edwin D. Taylor. They made landfall at Granville, ingressing at 1,000 feet. They strafed one train from 20 feet, and another from 100 feet, and 18 aircraft dive-bombed the small railroad yard between Percy and Hambye.

406th Fighter Squadron Commander and leader on both D-Day missions was Major Edwin D. Taylor.  He led the squadron from July, 1943, to September, 1944.  (Courtesy “The 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.” via 406FS P-47 Pilot Francis E. Madore)

406th Fighter Squadron Commander and leader on both D-Day missions was Major Edwin D. Taylor. He led the squadron from July, 1943, to September, 1944. (Courtesy “The 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.” via 406FS P-47 Pilot Francis E. Madore)

The 404th Fighter Squadron also joined it, 16 P-47’s led by squadron commander Major Rodney E. Gunther, up at 1516 hours for armed reconnaissance to attack enemy traffic on the road network in support of the invasion. Twelve P-47’s dive bombed from 4,000 feet, in a 30-degree dive, releasing their three 500-lb bombs at 1,500 feet, striking a small highway bridge at Vire, and rail cars at Coutances and Granville, and also strafing trucks at several locations.

404th Fighter Squadron Commander and leader on both D-Day missions was Major Rodney E. Gunther.  He led the squadron from July, 1943, to October, 1944.  (Courtesy “The 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.” via 406FS P-47 Pilot Francis E. Madore)

404th Fighter Squadron Commander and leader on both D-Day missions was Major Rodney E. Gunther. He led the squadron from July, 1943, to October, 1944. (Courtesy “The 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.” via 406FS P-47 Pilot Francis E. Madore)

The German anti-aircraft gunners near Granville whose flak was described as “moderate, heavy and accurate,” were able to hit the P-47 flown by 404FS pilot 2nd Lt. Joseph E. LaRochelle. He had to abandon his stricken Thunderbolt, P-47D-20 serial number 43-25278, and bail out some 200 yards off the coast at Granville. His parachute opened successfully and he survived, though as a result he became the first 371FG prisoner of war.

404th Fighter Squadron pilots gather for a photo in the spring of 1944, possibly taken at Bisterne Airfield’s camp area.  Kneeling, second from the left is 2nd Lt. Joseph E. LaRochelle, who became the 371st Fighter Group’s first pilot shot down and captured by the enemy when he bailed out of his flak-stricken P-47 overwater just off Granville, Normandy, on the afternoon of June 6, 1944.   Standing in the back row, sixth from the right, is Harry W. “Pop” Strahlendorf, who flew both missions that day, quoted in this article.  Full ID of personnel in picture as follows:  Standing, left to right are H. Robson (only partially visible at left edge), I. Killingsworth, S. Greer, W. Walling, L. Hammer, H. Gilmer, H. Strahlendorf, W. Bunce, W. Richter, R. Stoddard, H. Wagner and R. Haney. Kneeling left to right are L. Scott, J. LaRochelle, G. O’Toole, J. Green, W. Brown, G. Banks, and J. Cassells. In front, left to right are L. Myles, and K. Cobb. (Courtesy “The 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.” via 406FS P-47 Pilot Francis E. Madore)

404th Fighter Squadron pilots gather for a photo in the spring of 1944, possibly taken at Bisterne Airfield’s camp area. Kneeling, second from the left is 2nd Lt. Joseph E. LaRochelle, who became the 371st Fighter Group’s first pilot shot down and captured by the enemy when he bailed out of his flak-stricken P-47 overwater just off Granville, Normandy, on the afternoon of June 6, 1944. Standing in the back row, sixth from the right, is Harry W. “Pop” Strahlendorf, who flew both missions that day, quoted in this article. Full ID of personnel in picture as follows: Standing, left to right are H. Robson (only partially visible at left edge), I. Killingsworth, S. Greer, W. Walling, L. Hammer, H. Gilmer, H. Strahlendorf, W. Bunce, W. Richter, R. Stoddard, H. Wagner and R. Haney. Kneeling left to right are L. Scott, J. LaRochelle, G. O’Toole, J. Green, W. Brown, G. Banks, and J. Cassells. In front, left to right are L. Myles, and K. Cobb.
(Courtesy “The 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.” via 406FS P-47 Pilot Francis E. Madore)

Altogether the group expended 128 500-lb bombs and 34, 568 rounds of .50 caliber machine gun ammunition. Several aircraft received battle damage, but those fit to fly again were soon readied for another mission over Normandy.

Meanwhile, another operations order arrived, this time over the teletype, No. 349, from IX FC. This time the target was a lot closer to the landing beaches, and consisted of enemy gun emplaces at Isigny, roughly 10 miles southwest of Omaha Beach, in between Omaha and Utah beaches. Fifty four aircraft were launched, with four P-47s escorting the rest, dive-bombers carrying a trio of 500-pounders with instantaneous fuzes.

The 406FS was first in the air at 1925, 18 P-47’s led by Maj. Taylor. By 2000 hours they were over the target and dived from 8,500 feet at a 40-degree angle, the 16 dive-bombers releasing their bombs at 2,000 feet. Guns were not observed occupying the emplacements, but the bombs were dropped as ordered. In the vicinity of St. Lo, two rockets were noted passing through 10,000 feet leaving a white trail behind them. Meager, light flak was noted in the target area.

The 405th took off next at 1947, with 16 bomb-toting P-47’s and a pair of P-47 escorts led by Maj. Case. They dove on the target from 10,000 feet at a 50-degree angle, releasing at 3,000 feet, and also noted no guns in the emplacements they struck. No opposition was reported.

Last but not least, the 404th led by Maj. Gunther took off at 2006, with 18 P-47’s all bombed up. They ingressed at 9,000 feet, and dove in on their target at 2039 at a reported 60-degree angle and releasing weapons at 3,000 feet, hitting six gun emplacements. No opposition was noted.

The three squadrons returned without loss, with the last one down by 2156 hours. Frisky had expended another 147 500-lb bombs and 15, 369 rounds of .50 caliber ammunition on the mission.

This was the 371st Fighter Group’s contribution to the Longest Day, 112 sorties in support of the Allied landings in Normandy. P-47 pilot 1st Lt. Harry W. “Pop” Strahlendorf of the 404th Fighter Squadron, who flew both missions that day, wrote home about his experience a couple of days later: “I had a grand stand seat that I bet a lot of people would have paid $1,000 for. However I wouldn’t have given it up for anything.”

1 St Lt Harry W. "Pop" Strahlendorf poses with his P-47D Thunderbolt which he named "Eddie Nor" (Courtesy Mr. Harry Strahlendorf, Jr.)

1St Lt Harry W. “Pop” Strahlendorf, 404th Fighter Squadron, poses with his P-47D Thunderbolt which he named “Eddie Nor-II” Note the keystone emblem representing his home state.  (Courtesy Mr. Harry Strahlendorf, Jr.)

And so it was, from the afternoon into the evening hours of June 6, 1944, Airmen with a connection to the 142nd Fighter Wing contributed to the success of the D-Day landings. The Allied foothold gained in Normandy set into motion a series of campaigns and battles across northwestern Europe in which the Frisky was destined to play a key role in. Their efforts hastened the end of a long and bloody war to defeat fascism in the European Theater of Operations.

References, and material adapted from:

D-Day, June 6, 1944, The Longest Day, posted by 142d Fighter Wing Public affairs on June 6, 1014, at: http://www.142fw.ang.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123413568

“The 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.” Army & Navy Publishing, Baton Rouge, LA, 1946, copy via 406FS P-47 Pilot Francis E. Madore

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Remembering Jack T. McWilliams and the 371st Fighter Group on Memorial Day 2014

Memorial Day is the special annual day of remembrance in the United States for all the men and women who died in service to our country with the Armed Forces. We owe them our sincere thanks for giving their all for the freedom and liberty we are able to enjoy today.

Brittany American Cemetery and Memorial, St. James, France (Courtesy Dillsboro, Indiana American Legion)

Brittany American Cemetery and Memorial, St. James, France (Courtesy Dillsboro, Indiana American Legion)

For those who served in the military, we particularly remember our comrades in arms, the ones we served with, and especially the ones who will remain forever young.

Some of those lost on duty were still missing at the end of a given conflict, and in a sense there is no closure for family and friends when a loved one goes missing in action. Sometimes some of the missing are found. But even when they are, not everyone who knew them gets the word, and there are still people who aren’t aware of the discovery.

Such was the case for many years regarding 1st Lt. Lee McDuff, a 405FS P-47 pilot who was shot down over Germany in September, 1944, captured, and finished the war in a German POW camp. His buddy in the 405th, 1st Lt. Jack McWilliams, later went missing on a combat mission over Germany on January 14, 1945. When Lee McDuff got out of the POW camp in May, 1945, and returned to the States, Jack McWilliams was still MIA.

Fast forward many years to this time when the internet allows much information to be posted and searches to be made for the same. A fragment of a webpage indicated that Jack McWilliams had been found well after the war and returned to Montana. This lead to email which readily allowed contact with the hometown newspaper in early 2014, the Daily Inter Lake of Kalispell, Montana, and Managing Editor, Mr. Frank Miele. Mr. Miele was kindly willing to dig into the paper’s archives and help find the information about Jack McWilliams, which he then shared, coincidentally, on VE Day, May 8, 2014. So now, 70 years later, Lee McDuff has the “rest of the story” on the wartime fate of his good friend Jack McWilliams.

1st Lt Jack T. McWilliams (Courtesy Daily Inter Lake)

1st Lt Jack T. McWilliams (Courtesy Daily Inter Lake)

1st Lt. McWilliams was lost in action on his 36th combat mission, while attacking a target in France just west of the Rhine River, northwest of Baden Baden, Germany. This mission occurred during the time and in the area affected by German Operation North Wind, the last German offensive on the western front during World War II. The mission appears to have been in the US VI Corps area, at a time when that corps was being hit hard on three sides by German attacks.

According to squadron operational reports, Jack McWilliams was on a fighter-bomber mission led by the squadron commander, Major Gavan Robertson, on the morning of January 14, 1945. After bombing the target the formation of 12 P-47D Thunderbolts was suddenly bounced at 1015 by 15 German Me-109 fighters, coming out of the sun in a one pass hit and run attack and which kept going after that. The flight leader called on the radio to break into the enemy aircraft as they rapidly approached, but McWilliams didn’t break quick enough, was hit and his aircraft exploded and went down. He wasn’t seen to bail out.

The military officially declared him dead in 1946, even though he was still missing. In three years of military service he was awarded with the Air Medal with a silver oak leaf cluster, and the European Theater of operations ribbon with three bronze stars signifying his participation in three military campaigns in Europe during the war. Jack T. McWilliams was 22 years old.

On January 4, 1952, the Defense Department informed the parents of Jack McWilliams that the remains of their son and his aircraft had been found, nearly seven years after he went missing. News was carried about this in the January 27, 1952, issue of the Inter Lake paper, which indicated his body was to be returned to Montana on March 12, 1952, with funeral on March 15, and burial in the veterans section of Conrad Memorial Cemetery. He was survived by his parents, John (a First World War veteran) and Opal, his wife, the former Jean Bull, whom he married in May, 1944, before going overseas, a brother, Gerald, and a sister, Myrle.

This Memorial Day, we remember Jack T. McWilliams, and also all 55 Airmen on the 371FG’s Roll of Honor who were lost in service during World War II, including the six men still missing. By name, and with available information, they are, in alphabetical order by last name:

Allen, Macey E., Cpl., 404th Fighter Squadron, from Huntsville, Alabama. KBEA, March 29, 1945, in a fort near Metz, France. He is buried at the Marietta National Cemetery in Marietta, Georgia, at Plot G, 8366G.

Angst, Theodore R., 2nd Lt., 405FS, from Milwaukee, Wisconsin. KIFA, April 18, 1945, near Darmstadt, Germany.

Bailey, John E., 2nd Lt., 404FS, from Whitefield, New Hampshire. KIA, July 30, 1944, over France. He is buried at the Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Virginia, at Section 34, Site 1609. He was awarded the Purple Heart.

Bales, William T., Jr., Capt., Group HQ, from Chattanooga, Tennessee. MIA, April 13, 1945, over Germany. Postwar determined dead, he is buried at the Ardennes American Cemetery in Neupre, Belgium, at Plot D, Row 8, Grave 6. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross and Air Medal with oak leaf cluster.

Banks, Glenn O., 1st Lt., 404FS, from Ponea, Oklahoma. KIA, July 17, 1944, near Quettou, France.

Bilstin, Leon, Capt., 405 and 406FS, from Los Angeles, California. KIA, September 28, 1944, while with the 378th Fighter Squadron of the 362nd Fighter Group. He is remembered on the Tablets of the Missing at the Lorraine Military Cemetery, in St. Avold, France. He was awarded the Purple Heart and the Air Medal with 11 oak leaf clusters.

Booth, Robert A., 1st Lt., 405FS, from Oakville, Connecticut. KIA, October 27, 1944, on food drop mission to the “Lost Battalion” near St. Die, in P-47D 42-76477. He is buried at the Epinal American Cemetery, Epinal, France, at Plot B, Row 12, Grave 23. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross, Purple Heart and the Air Medal with nine oak leaf clusters.

Boyle, Charles J. Jr., Flight Officer, 404FS, Worchester, Massachusetts. KIA, February 27, 1945, near Metz, France. He is buried in the Luxembourg American Cemetery, in Luxembourg City, Luxembourg, at Plot E, Row 3, Grave 23. He was awarded the Purple Heart and the Air Medal with oak leaf cluster.

Bridges, Doctor Samuel Boyce, Jr., 1st Lt., 406FS, from Henrietta, North Carolina. KIA, March 23, 1945, near Germersheim, Germany. He is buried at the Cliffside Cemetery, in Cliffside, North Carolina.

Bunting, Joseph A., 1st Lt., 405FS, from St. Petersburg, Florida. MIA, April 4, 1945, over Germany. Found in 1949, he is buried in the St. Augustine National Cemetery, Saint Augustine, Florida.

Calish, Sumner J., 2nd Lt., 406FS, from Brighton, Massachusetts. KIA, August 24, 1944, over France.

Chandler, Fred T., Sgt., 404FS,from Slater, South Carolina. KBEA, March 29, 1945, in fort near Metz, France. He is buried at the Marietta National Cemetery in Marietta, Georgia, at Plot G, 8366G.

Clark, Bradley B., 2nd Lt., 406FS, from Mt. Vernon, New York. KIA, December 23, 1944, at Tantonville, France, on return from a combat mission. He is buried in the Epinal American Cemetery, at Epinal, France, at Plot B, Row 24, Grave 9. He was awarded the Purple Heart and the Air Medal.

Daley, William J., Lt. Col., Group HQ, from Amarillo, Texas. KIFA September 9, 1944, in taxing accident at Coulommiers, France. He is buried at the Epinal American Cemetery, Epinal, France, at Plot B, Row 25, Grave 65. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Purple Heart with oak leaf cluster, Air Medal with eight oak leaf clusters, and the British Distinguished Flying Cross.

Delaney, Sanders E., Lt. Col., 406FS, from Litchfield, Illinois. KIFA, June 5, 1945, in L-5 crash near Nuremburg, Germany. He is buried at the Lorraine American Cemetery, St. Avold, France, at Plot E, Row 13, Grave 14. He was awarded the Silver Star, Distinguished Flying Cross with oak leaf cluster and the Air Medal.

Feit, Herbert E., PFC, 406FS, from New York, New York. Missing April 1, 1945, near Metz, France. He is remembered on the Tablets of the Missing at the Lorraine American Cemetery, St. Avold, France.

Fisher, Walter K., Capt., 404FS, from Westerville, Ohio. MIA April 7, 1945, over Germany. Postwar determined dead, he is buried at the Oak Grove Cemetery in Delaware, Ohio.

Fletcher, Charles R., 2nd Lt., 404FS, from Holton, Kansas. KIA, April 7, 1945, during engagement with enemy aircraft over Germany. He is buried at the Holton Cemetery, in Holton, Kansas, in Section K.

Franklin, Elkin L., Capt., 404FS, from St. Louis, Missouri. MIA, April 20, 1944, over Italy. Postwar Determined Dead. He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia at Section 1, Site 602.

Goodman, George M., S/Sgt, from Richmond, Virginia. Died in line of duty, August 24, 1944, near LaCambe, France. He is buried in the Normandy American Cemetery in Colleville-sur-Mer, France, at Plot I, Row 26, Grave 11.

Gorman, William, Flight Officer, 405FS, from Brooklyn, New York. MIA, August 7, 1944, over St. Nazaire, France. He is remembered on the Tablets of the Missing at the Brittany American Cemetery in St. James, France. He was awarded the Air Medal with six oak leaf clusters.

Gray, Rockford V., Maj., Group HQ, from Dallas, Texas. KIA, September 4, 1944, at St. Mere Eglise, France, while returning from a mission.

Harris, Christo G., 2nd Lt., 404FS, from Los Angeles, California. MIA, March 16, 1945, over Germany. He is buried at the Luxembourg American Cemetery, in Luxembourg City, Luxembourg, at Plot D Row 5 Grave 9. He was awarded the Purple Heart and the Air medal with five oak leaf clusters.

Hayes, Edward J., Capt., 405FS, from Independence, Kentucky. KIA, November 1, 1944, over eastern France. He is buried in the Lorraine American Cemetery, in St. Avold, France, at Plot B, Row 17, Grave 54. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Purple Heart, and the Air Medal with 11 oak leaf clusters.

Hess, Charles E., 2nd Lt., 405FS, from Mt. Vernon, New York. MIA, December 22, 1944, over Germany. Not in ABMC database for burials or tablets of the missing.

Hohl, Harry W., Jr., Capt., 404FS, from New Brighton, Pennsylvania. KIA, January 2, 1945, over eastern France.

Holm, Wayne L., 2nd Lt., 405FS, from Portland, Oregon. MIA January 2, 1945, over Germany – Postwar Determined Dead. He is buried in the Lorraine American Cemetery, St. Avold, France, at Plot D, Row 7, Grave 14. He was awarded the Air Medal with two oak leaf clusters.

Humphreys, Edwin S. Jr., Flight Officer, 404FS, from Chicago, Illinois. MIA, June 8, 1944, over France – Postwar Determined Dead. Remembered on the Tablets of the Missing at Cambridge American Cemetery, Cambridge, England. He was awarded the Purple Heart and the Air Medal.

Jorgenson, William, Jr., 2nd Lt., 405FS, from Waterloo, Iowa. KIA, August 25, 1944, near Troyes, France. He is buried at the Epinal American Cemetery, Epinal, France, at Plot A, Row 28, Grave 61. He was awarded the Air Medal with six oak leaf clusters.

Lamb, William R., Capt., 404FS, from Chateaugay, New York. KIFA, January 14, 1945, near Epinal, France. He is buried at the Epinal American Cemetery, Epinal, France, at Plot B, Row 40, Grave 17. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross, Purple Heart, and Air Medal with 12 oak leaf clusters.

Leach Ernest W., 1st Lt., 405FS, from Dennisport, Massachusetts. KIA, August 9, 1944, over France. He is buried in the Brittany American Cemetery in St. James, France, at Plot D, Row 17, Grave 9. He was awarded the Purple Heart and the Air Medal with seven oak leaf clusters.

Leonard, John W., Lt. Col., 405FS, from St. Petersburg, Florida. DOWRIA, January 5, 1945, over Germany. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery at Section 1, Site 304-C.

McWilliams, Jack T., 1st Lt., 405FS, from Somers, Montana. MIA, January 14, 1945, over Germany. Postwar Determined Dead. Found circa 1952. He is buried in the Veterans section of the Conrad Memorial Cemetery near Kalispell, Montana. He was awarded the Air Medal with five oak leaf clusters.

Mezzetti, Robert A., 2nd Lt., 405FS, from San Antonio, Texas. KIA, August 2, 1944, over France. He is buried at the Brittany American Cemetery in St. James, France at Plot K, Row 9, Grave 9. He was awarded the Air Medal with five oak leaf clusters.

Motherway, John W., 2nd Lt., 406FS, from Springfield, Massachusetts. MIA, March 1, 1945, over Germany. Postwar determined dead, he is buried in the Ardennes American Cemetery, Neupre, Belgium, at Plot B, Row 27, Grave 19. He was awarded the Purple Heart.

Mueller, William J., Capt., 404FS, from Robbinsdale, Minnesota. KIA, July 31, 1944, at Mortain, France.

Murphy, Chester M., Jr., 2nd Lt., from Landis, North Carolina. DOWNC, March 4, 1945, at Metz, France. He is buried at the Luxembourg American Cemetery, in Luxembourg City, Luxembourg, at Plot G, Row 6, Grave 1.

Murphy, John F., 2nd Lt., 404FS, from Bonita Springs, Florida. DOWNC, March 4, 1945, at Metz, France.

Nerney, Frederick W., 2nd Lt., 406FS, from Attleboro, Massachusetts. KIA, March 19, 1945, over Rhine Palatinate, Germany. He is buried in the Lorraine American Cemetery, St. Avold, France, at Plot A, Row 29, Grave 22. He was awarded the Purple Heart and the Air Medal with oak leaf cluster.

Pieck, George D., Capt., 404FS, from Clarksdale, Mississippi. MIA, August 10, 1944, over France. He is remembered on the Tablets of the Missing at the Brittany American Cemetery, St. James, France. He was awarded the Purple Heart and the Air Medal with 13 oak leaf clusters.

Pollingue, Alvin M., 2nd Lt, 405FS, from Vineland, New Jersey. KIA, July 17, 1944, while strafing a train in France. He is buried at the Brittany American Cemetery, St. James, France, at Plot J, Row 6, Grave 15. He was awarded the Purple Heart and the Air Medal with five oak leaf clusters.

Rector, Gerry S., 2nd Lt., 405FS. MIA, April 4, 1945, over Germany. Postwar determined dead, he is buried at the Laredo City Cemetery, in Laredo, Texas, at BL-36 Section 3, Row 5, Space 5.

Salmi, Uno, Capt., 406FS, from Lake Charles, Louisiana. MIA, June 16, 1944, near St. Lo, France. He is remembered on the Tablets of the Missing at the Cambridge American Cemetery, Cambridge, England. He was awarded the Purple Heart and the Air Medal with four oak leaf clusters.

Sample, Harry M., Jr., Capt., 404FS, from Houston, Texas. KIFA, October 29, 1944, one mile SE of Le Lox, France, while on local flight in P-47D 42-76366. He is buried at the Fort Sam Houston National Cemetery, San Antonio, Texas, at Section N, Site 130.

Sanderson, Eugene E., 2nd Lt., 405FS. KIFA, April 12, 1944, while on an engineering test hop at Bisterne Airfield, England. He is buried at the Cambridge American Cemetery, Cambridge, England, at Plot F, Row 1, Grave 47.

Shepard, John H., 1st Lt., 406FS, from Buenos Aires, Argentina. KIA, June 18, 1944, near St. Saveur, France. He is buried at the Normandy American Cemetery in Colleville-sur-Mer, France, at Plot E, Row 28, Grave 38. He was awarded the Purple Heart and the Air Medal with four oak leaf clusters.

Sparks, Charles P., 1st Lt., 406FS, from Swayzee, Indiana. KIA, October 15, 1944, in engagement with enemy aircraft near Strasbourg, France. He is buried at the Lorraine American Cemetery, St. Avold, France, at Plot C, Row 14, Grave 32. He was awarded the Silver Star, Distinguished Flying Cross and the Air Medal with 11 oak leaf clusters.

Spicer, Harold H., 1st Lt., 405FS, from Dartmouth, Nova Scotia. KIA, March 18, 1945, near Metz Airdrome, on return from mission over Germany. He is buried at the Luxembourg American Cemetery, Luxembourg City, Luxembourg, at Plot H, Row 14, Grave 67. He was awarded the Purple Heart and the Air Medal with oak leaf cluster.

Springer, George W., III, 2nd Lt., 406FS, from Seneca, Kansas. KIA, October 17, 1944, over Germany. He is buried in St. Peter and Paul’s Cemetery in Seneca, Kansas, at Section 1, Lot 151, Space 1.

Strahlendorf, Harry W., 1st Lt, 404FS, from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. KIA, June 24, 1944, over Normandy. He is buried at the Greenmount Cemetery in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was awarded the Purple Heart, the Air Medal with three oak leaf clusters, European Campaign Medal and the World War II Victory Medal.

Unruh, Victor L., 2nd Lt., 406FS, from Pawnee Rock, Kansas. MIA, June 21, 1944, while returning from escort mission to Berlin, Germany. Single source report indicates he survived shoot down but subsequently died of injuries.

Voss, John, Sgt, 406FS. KIGA, September 10, 1944, motor accident near St. Dizier, France. He is buried in the Epinal American Cemetery, Epinal, France, at Plot A, Row 20, Grave 68.

Webster, Spencer A., T/Sgt, 406FS. KIGA, September 10, 1944, motor accident near St. Dizier, France. He is buried at the Long Island National Cemetery, in Farmingdale, New York, at Plot J, 16497.

Weller, John G., 2nd Lt., 406FS, from Chicago, Illinois. KIA, August 9, 1944, over France. He is buried in the Brittany American Cemetery in St. James, France, at Plot P, Row 1, Grave 17. He was awarded the Air Medal with seven oak leaf clusters.

Wieczorek, Henry, 1st Lt., 406FS, from Elyria, Ohio. KIA, January 22, 1945, in eastern France. He is buried in the Saint Mary Cemetery, in Elyria, Ohio.

Hand Salute!

Participants and attendees stand during the 2013 Memorial Day ceremony at Brittany American Cemetery in France.  (Courtesy ABMC)

Participants and attendees stand during the 2013 Memorial Day ceremony at Brittany American Cemetery in France. (Courtesy ABMC)

DOWNC = Died Of Wounds, Non-Combat
DOWRIA = Died Of Wounds Received In Action
KIA = Killed In Action
KIFA = Killed In Flying Accident
KIGA = Killed In Ground Accident
MIA = Missing In Action

References

“The Story of the 371st Fighter Group in the E.T.O.,” Army & Navy Publishers, Baton Rouge, LA, 1946.

American Battle Monuments Commission Search Page, at: http://www.abmc.gov/search-abmc-burials-and-memorializations

Arlington national Cemetery, Army Burials Listing, Alphabetical, A to L, at: http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/usarmy1.htm

Find A Grave, Search Page at: http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gs&

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Frisky makes some “Big Friends”

Although Frisky was assigned to the Ninth Air Force, considered to be a tactical air force, he did have occasion to help the Mighty Eighth Air Force, the strategic air force based in England, a few times. The first time appears to have been on May 23, 1944, when the 371 FG was tasked to provide escort for B-17 Flying Fortresses of the First Bombardment Division as they flew a mission in preparation for D-Day.

The order, Field Order 283 came down from IX Fighter Command, when the 371st was tasked with ”…penetration support to the limit of endurance,” supporting the rear portion of the 1st Air Task Force. This task force of heavy bombers, some 580 strong, included eight Combat Wings of B-17s, with about 40 bombers each, were tasked to hit six different targets in France, including railroad transportation targets ranging as far as Metz, Epinal and Chaumont.

Group commander Lt Col Kleine led Frisky on this mission, and all three fighter squadrons participated. Fifty five P-47s were slated for the mission, including two that served as radio relay aircraft and five spares.

A dozen P-47 Thunderbolts pass by a B-17 of the 305th Bomb Group (Courtesy Together We Served)

A dozen P-47 Thunderbolts pass by a B-17 of the 305th Bomb Group (Courtesy Together We Served)

The fighters rendezvoused with the “Big Friends” as American fighters referred to the heavy bombers, over the English Channel near Dieppe at 0805 in the morning, and escorted about 11 combat boxes of B-17s with about 18 aircraft per box. Good bomber-fighter intercom was reported. Weather enroute was up to 8/10 cloud at about 8,000 feet. They covered a distance of about 150 miles, safely protecting the bombers at an altitude of 25,000 feet on their penetration into German-defended air space. There was no opposition except for some flak noted around Laon, described as “heavy, accurate, moderate intensity.” After some 31 minutes of escort, a P-51 Mustang group relieved Frisky of duty at about 0835 in the area of Verdun, France. Frisky then returned to base, landing from 0930 into the 1000 hour.

B-17G's of the 381st Bomb Group make their way in the skies over Europe (Courtesy USAF)

B-17G’s of the 381st Bomb Group make their way in the skies over Europe (Courtesy USAF)

The bombers successfully reached their target areas, but the weather grew worse and some were unable to bomb their primary targets or targets of opportunity. Still, some 34 bombers hit Metz, 36 hit Epinal and another 54 hit Chaumont. Others in smaller numbers hit targets of opportunity.

As things turned out, Frisky accomplished the mission, though there were some hiccups in generating the aircraft for the mission. Two P-47s had a late takeoff after a delay in fueling of the aircraft. There were also a couple of mechanical aborts due to leaking external fuel tanks, required for the long distance of the mission. But other than that, the mission was successfully accomplished, and it could be said that Frisky made some Big Friends that day in May, 1944.

A P-47 Thunderbolt guards a formation of B-17 Flying Fortresses in Europe during World War II (USAAF photo)

A P-47 Thunderbolt guards a formation of B-17 Flying Fortresses in Europe during World War II (USAAF photo)

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